Category Archives: old site

Original links and pages

Transistors

About Transistors

A transistor can be thought of as a simple current switch. There are two main transistors NPN and PNP. NPN are the most common transistors. A transistor can be thought of as two diodes sharing the same anode for NPN or cathode for PNP. The base emitter junction is forward biased and the base collector is reversed biased. By applying a small voltage to the base of a transistor you allow a current flow through the transistor from the collector towards the emitter. This is easy to remember as the collector will generally be connected to your supply voltage and the emitter will go towards ground. Also it is important to note that a transistor is a current operated device and not voltage. When a transistor is “switched on” it acts as a conductor and therefor has very low resistance. If you put to much current through a transistor it will get VERY VERY hot and will probably breakdown therefore you should have a current limiting resistor connected in series with Collector Emitter of a transistor as well as a series resistor with the base of the transistor to also limit the current flow at the base emitter junction.

Diagrams of transistors: NPN & PNP

NPN

NPN transistor

PNP

PNP transistor

Diode representation

NPN made out of diodes

diode representation of a NPN transistor

PNP made out of diodes

diode representation of a PNP transistor

A transistor has 3 pins: Base, emitter and Collector the majority current flow is through Collector towards emitter there is a secondary current flow from base to emitter.

Transistor threshold voltage

To turn on a transistor you need 0.7v or more on the base of the transistor at witch you will get a base current flow Ib, the current through the Collector emitter junction is equal to current through the Base emitter junction X hfe. Ic = hfe x Ib but not if the transistor is saturated. The emitter current Ie = Ic + Ib. Ic is much larger than Ib, so you can say that Ie = Ic. hfe is the amplification of the current that a transistor can produce, DC current gain. Saturated meant that the resistance between collector and emitter = 0 ohms, when this happens the Vce is 0v and the voltage on the collector is determined from the supply voltage and the external resistance of the other components in the circuit.

Transistor LED driver

LED transistor driver

10kohm resistor limits the current flow or you will blow the transistor. the 470 ohm resistor limits the current through the collector emitter junction as a LED has no resistance and will blow both the LED and transistor if not used. Diode representation.

Darlington pair

Darlington Pair driver

This is two transistors connected together so that the amplified current from the first transistor is amplified further by the second transistor. The first transistor’s emitter feeds into the second transistor’s base and as a result the input signal is amplified. This circuit acts like a single transistor with the gain = to the product of all the gains of the transistors.

hfetotal = hfe1 × hfe2

This might sound like a good thing right but with all good things come draw backs doubling the transistors also doubles the base voltage and there fore instead on needing 0.7v to switch the transistor you will now need 1.4v. A darlington pair is so sensitive to current flow, that it can detect the current of you touching the base connector with your finger, this makes it perfect for touch plate switches.

Transistor to switch a large load

switching a large load

When a transistor is used as a switch it must be either fully on or off. If driving a inductive load like a relay or any type of coil you should connect a diode in reverse bias across the load so that back EMF will not flow into the transistor, destroying it.

Single transistor radio

single-transistor-radio-circuit

[Link to source of this circuit]
 

This is a very simple radio circuit I found on the web using:
1 transistor
a 1 meter piece of wire as a aerial
you will need a germanium detector diode for the best results these diodes have very low switching voltage, typically about 0.3V
a 3.5mH inductor that is center taped or 2 x 0.18mH connected back to back
and a variable capacitor plus a few passive components

Share

LED

LED lighting and genral information about LEDs

LED symbol:

LED symbolthe symbol for an LED is quite straight forward. Basically current can only flow in one direction in a LED from the anode to the cathode. The LED anode kinda looks like the letter A and this is the positive which has a Longer leg than the LED cathode, the negative. The cathode is also identified by a flat edge on the side of the LED as well as looking at it internally through the plastic housing and identifying the triangular piece of metal.

PN-Junction theory:

A LED is a semi-conductor made up of two elements one a P-type material which is missing electrons(Holes) and the other a N-type which has extra electrons (an electron has a -ve charge)

current flow is the passing of -ve electrons from the “extra” free electrons of atoms in a conductor towards the “holes” of the other atoms adjacent to it.

LED PN junctionfollowing convectional current flow current flows from positive towards negative, electron flow however is in the opposite direction negative towards positive.
If you make the N-type region -ve and the P-type +ve, electrons and holes will move towards the junction and there are plenty of charge carriers there and a current can flow. Like poles will repel each other forcing the junction to close and allowing current to flow. this is known as forward biasing a PN junction.
On the other hand if you reverse bias the PN junction, you place a -ve on the P-type material and a +ve on the N-type material the junction will widen and electrons will not be able to jump the gap and current will not flow except for a slight current flow and this is known as leakage current and is usually 0.7V

When the -ve electrons fill the +ve holes they release energy in the form of light.

no electron flow = no current flow = no light from the LED

Coloured LED:

The colour of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material, this means it can be packaged in a clear housing and not only in the colours that they come in.

(InGaN) indium gallium nitride – green, blue and white
(AlGaInP) aluminum gallium indium phosphide – red, orange and yellow
the ratios of these compounds determines the colour produced

crazy LED Colours:

originally the manufacturing process to produce white and blue LEDs was very difficult and subsequently the price for these colours where a lot more. In resent years however the better manufacturing techniques means it is now possible to get crazy LEDs in any colour under the sun.

LED colours

LED wind up torch:

LEDs are very low current devices (typically 20mA) relative to incandescent bulbs (450mA, standard light bulbs) this means you can use other forms of energy very efficiently like the power produced by winding a small dc motor, like the ones found in small toys. Then storing this power in a capacitor to slowly discharge through a resistor in to a LED. The relative cheapness of these components mean its very easy to produce wind up torches and they are very effective and inexpensive.

dimming LED:

The best way to dim an LED it through PWM (pulse width modulation) using a very simple circuit like the 555 on this page by varying the duty cycle and adjusting the “on time” the LED will appear to glow brighter or dimmer. PWM is more efficient over using other techniques like resistors.

How to power a LED:

LEDs are not like normal bulbs they have very low resistance and can be thought of as a conductor (piece of wire) when forward biased (following electron flow) if you connect it directly to a battery they will draw the maximum amount of current the power supply can handle. Now typically a LED is designed to run at 20mA (0.02A) and will blow if you run to much current through them, this is why you need to place a resistor in series with the LED to limit the current flow. To work out the current flow follow this equation below this is very simple.

VLED: is the rated voltage of the LED usually between 1.5v- 4v

Vsupply voltage: the voltage you supplying it with

Resistor: the component we trying to work out measured in ohms

and I: the current flow say 20mA

Resistor = (Vsupply voltage – VLED) / I

LED example:

lets say we got are self a LED and its rated at 2V 20ma and we going to run it off a 3V supply like 2xAA battries (1.5V x 2 = 3V)

R=(VS – VL)/I
R=(3V – 2V)/0.02
R=(1V)/0.02
R= 50 ohm

LED Circuit
So we need a 50 ohm resistorr don’t worry if you cant get this exact value in most cases going up or down a few ohms is not going to harm. A very common resistor value is 47 ohm and that will be fine.

now you probably seen people make LED Throwie’s and you saying they don’t use resistors this is true. and simple really. A 3V button battery has very little current that it can supply and is no where close to burn out a LED.

bathroom LED:

LEDs are low current devises making them perfect for applications where moisture is involved. One such use is for bathroom lighting. There is no need for mains electricity to directly power these low voltage devices and therefore they are very safe for bathroom areas.

Buy LEDS online:

Need LED lights and did not find it in my amazon store try these links:
[Maplin electronics]
[Rapid online]

 

LED wavelength:

 

  Wavelength
(nm)
Color Name Fwd Voltage
(Vf @ 20ma)
Intensity
5mm LEDs
Viewing
Angle
LED Dye Material
940 Infrared 1.5 16mW
@50mA
15° GaAIAs/GaAs — Gallium Aluminum Arsenide/Gallium Arsenide
880 Infrared 1.7 18mW
@50mA
15° GaAIAs/GaAs — Gallium Aluminum Arsenide/Gallium Arsenide
850 Infrared  1.7 26mW
@50mA
15° GaAIAs/GaAs — Gallium Aluminum Arsenide/Gallium Aluminum Arsenide
660 Ultra Red 1.8 2000mcd
@50mA
15° GaAIAs/GaAs — Gallium Aluminum Arsenide/Gallium Aluminum Arsenide
635 High Eff. Red 2.0 200mcd @20mA 15° GaAsP/GaP – Gallium Arsenic Phosphide / Gallium Phosphide
633 Super Red 2.2 3500mcd
@20mA
15° InGaAIP – Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide
620 Super Orange 2.2 4500mcd
@20mA
15° InGaAIP – Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide
612 Super
Orange
2.2 6500mcd
@20mA
15° InGaAIP – Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide
605 Orange 2.1 160mcd @20mA 15° GaAsP/GaP – Gallium Arsenic Phosphide / Gallium Phosphide
595 Super Yellow 2.2 5500mcd
@20mA
15° InGaAIP – Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide
592 Super Pure
Yellow
2.1 7000mcd
@20mA
15° InGaAIP – Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide
585  Yellow 2.1 100mcd @20mA 15° GaAsP/GaP – Gallium Arsenic Phosphide / Gallium Phosphide
4500K “Incan-
descent”
White
3.6 2000mcd
@20mA
20° SiC/GaN — Silicon Carbide/Gallium Nitride
6500K Pale
White
3.6 4000mcd
@20mA
20° SiC/GaN — Silicon Carbide/Gallium Nitride
8000K Cool White 3.6 6000mcd
@20mA
20° SiC/GaN – Silicon Carbide / Gallium Nitride
574 Super
Lime Yellow
2.4 1000mcd
@20mA
15° InGaAIP – Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide
570 Super
Lime Green
2.0 1000mcd
@20mA
15° InGaAIP – Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide
565 High
Efficiency
Green
2.1 200mcd
@20mA
15° GaP/GaP – Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Phosphide
560 Super
Pure Green
2.1 350mcd
@20mA
15° InGaAIP – Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide
555 Pure Green 2.1 80mcd
@20mA
15° GaP/GaP – Gallium Phosphide/ Gallium Phosphide
525 Aqua Green 3.5 10,000mcd
@20mA
15° SiC/GaN – Silicon Carbide / Gallium Nitride
505 Blue Green 3.5 2000mcd
@20mA
45° SiC/GaN – Silicon Carbide / Gallium Nitride
470 Super Blue 3.6 3000mcd
@20mA
15° SiC/GaN – Silicon Carbide / Gallium Nitride
430 Ultra Blue 3.8 100mcd
@20mA
15° SiC/GaN – Silicon Carbide / Gallium Nitride
Share

List of 74 series ICs

Logic family:

 

More information on these select IC’s

7400 – Quad 2-input NAND gate
7401 – Quad 2-input NAND gate with open collector outputs
7402 – Quad 2-input NOR Gate
7430 – 8 Input NAND Gate
7439 – Quad 2-input NAND Buffer
74133 – 13-Input NAND gate
74HC4040 – 12-stage binary ripple counter

 

Full list of 74 series IC’s

This is a good list to have at hand and you should download it to your hard-drive for reference purpose.

[Download 74 series list]
I find it very useful when trying to identify IC’s in a random parts bin. Also if you looking for a part of a certain type all you need to do is hit [F3] on a simple note editor like windows notepad type in the part you looking for and walla you have the part, simples. This is probably the most important piece of software I use when working on projects.

The Art of Electronics – By Paul Horowitz, Winfield Hill

  • The thoroughly revised and updated second edition of the hugely successful first edition.
  • If there is one book you should get your hands on, its The Art of Electronics – By Paul Horowitz, Winfield Hill this is a must have for anyone studying Electronic Engineering. Its full of use full information about the subject. I highly recommend getting the hard cover edition as you will soon find that you need to reference this book quite often.

* 7400: Quad 2-input NAND gate
* 7401: Quad 2-input NAND gate with open collector outputs
* 7402: Quad 2-input NOR Gate
* 7402: Quad 2-input NOR Gate
* 7403: Quad 2-input NAND gate with open collector outputs (different pinout than 7401)
* 7404: Hex Inverter
* 7405: Hex Inverter with open collector outputs
* 7406: Hex Inverter Buffer/Driver with 30V open collector outputs
* 7407: Hex Buffer/Driver with 30V open collector outputs
* 7408: Quad 2-input AND gate
* 7409: Quad 2-input AND gate with open collector outputs
* 7410: Triple 3-input NAND gate
* 7411: Triple 3-input AND gate
* 7412: Triple 3-input NAND gate with open collector outputs
* 7413: Dual Schmitt trigger 4-input NAND gate
* 7414: Hex Schmitt trigger Inverter
* 7415: Triple 3-input AND gate with open collector outputs
* 7416: Hex Inverter Buffer/Driver with 15V open collector outputs
* 7417: Hex Buffer/Driver with 15V open collector outputs
* 7419: Hex Schmitt trigger Inverter
* 7420: Dual 4-input NAND gate
* 7421: Dual 4-input AND gate
* 7422: Dual 4-Input NAND gate with open collector outputs
* 7423: Expandable Dual 4-input NOR gate with Strobe
* 7424: Quad 2-input NAND gate gates with schmitt-trigger line-receiver inputs.
* 7425: Dual 4-input NOR gate with Strobe
* 7426: Quad 2-input NAND gate with 15V open collector outputs
* 7427: Triple 3-input NOR Gate
* 7428: Quad 2-input NOR Buffer
* 7430: 8-input NAND gate
* 7431: Hex Delay Elements
* 7432: Quad 2-input OR Gate
* 7433: Quad 2-input NOR Buffer with open collector outputs
* 7436: Quad 2-input NOR Gate (different pinout than 7402)
* 7437: Quad 2-input NAND Buffer
* 7438: Quad 2-input NAND Buffer with open collector outputs
* 7439: Quad 2-input NAND Buffer

* 7440: Dual 4-input NAND Buffer
* 7441: BCD to Decimal Decoder/NIXIE Tube Driver
* 7442: BCD to Decimal Decoder
* 7443: Excess-3 to Decimal Decoder
* 7444: Excess-3-Gray to Decimal Decoder
* 7445: BCD to Decimal Decoder/Driver
* 7446: BCD to 7-segment Decoder/Driver with 30V open collector outputs
* 7447: BCD to 7-segment Decoder/Driver with 15V open collector outputs
* 7448: BCD to 7-segment Decoder/Driver with Internal Pullups
* 7449: BCD to 7-segment Decoder/Driver with open collector outputs
* 7450: Dual 2-Wide 2-input AND-OR-INVERT Gate (one gate expandable)
* 7451: Dual 2-Wide 2-Input AND-OR-INVERT Gate
* 7452: Expandable 4-Wide 2-input AND-OR Gate
* 7453: Expandable 4-Wide 2-input AND-OR-INVERT Gate
* 7454: 4-Wide 2-Input AND-OR-INVERT Gate
* 7455: 2-Wide 4-Input AND-OR-INVERT Gate (74H version is expandable)
* 7456: 50:1 Frequency divider
* 7457: 60:1 Frequency divider
* 7458: Dual 4-bit Decade Counter
* 7459: Dual 4-bit Binary Counter
* 7460: Dual 4-input Expander
* 7461: Triple 3-input Expander
* 7462: 3-2-2-3-Input Expander
* 7463: Hex Current Sensing Interface Gates
* 7464: 4-2-3-2-Input AND-OR-INVERT Gate
* 7465: 4-2-3-2 Input AND-OR-INVERT Gate with open collector output
* 7468: Dual 4 Bit Decade or Binary Counters
* 7469: Dual 4 Bit Decade or Binary Counters
* 7470: AND-Gated Positive Edge Triggered J-K Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
* 74H71: AND-OR-Gated J-K Master-Slave Flip-Flop with Preset
* 74L71: AND-Gated R-S Master-Slave Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
* 7472: AND Gated J-K Master-Slave Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
* 7473: Dual J-K Flip-Flop with Clear
* 7474: Dual D Positive Edge Triggered Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
* 7475: 4-bit Bistable Latch
* 7476: Dual J-K Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
* 7477: 4-bit Bistable Latch
* 74H78, 74L78: Dual J-K Flip-Flop with Preset, Common Clear, and Common Clock
* 74LS78A: Dual Negative Edge Triggered J-K Flip-Flop with Preset, Common Clear, and Common Clock
* 7479: Dual D Flip-Flop
* 7480: Gated Full Adder
* 7481: 16-bit Random Access Memory
* 7482: 2-bit Binary Full Adder
* 7483: 4-bit Binary Full Adder
* 7484: 16-bit Random Access Memory
* 7485: 4-bit Magnitude Comparator
* 7486: Quad 2-input XOR gate
* 7487: 4-bit True/Complement/Zero/One Element
* 7488: 256-bit Read-only memory
* 7489: 64-bit Random Access Memory
* 7490: Decade Counter (separate Divide-by-2 and Divide-by-5 sections)
* 7491: 8-bit Shift Register, Serial In, Serial Out, Gated Input
* 7492: Divide-by-12 Counter (separate Divide-by-2 and Divide-by-6 sections)
* 7493: 4-bit Binary Counter (separate Divide-by-2 and Divide-by-8 sections)
* 7494: 4-bit Shift register, Dual Asynchronous Presets
* 7495: 4-bit Shift register, Parallel In, Parallel Out, Serial Input, Bidirectional
* 7496: 5-bit Parallel-In/Parallel-Out Shift register, Asynchronous Preset
* 7497: Synchronous 6-bit Binary Rate Multiplier
* 7498: 4-bit Data Selector/Storage Register
* 7499: 4-bit Bidirectional Universal Shift register
* 74100: Dual 4-Bit Bistable Latch
* 74101: AND-OR-Gated J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Preset
* 74102: AND-Gated J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
* 74103: Dual J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Clear
* 74104: J-K Master-Slave Flip-Flop
* 74105: J-K Master-Slave Flip-Flop
* 74106: Dual J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
* 74107: Dual J-K Flip-Flop with Clear
* 74107A: Dual J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Clear
* 74108: Dual J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Preset, Common Clear, and Common Clock
* 74109: Dual J-Not-K Positive-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Clear and Preset
* 74110: AND-Gated J-K Master-Slave Flip-Flop with Data Lockout
* 74111: Dual J-K Master-Slave Flip-Flop with Data Lockout
* 74112: Dual J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Clear and Preset
* 74113: Dual J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Preset
* 74114: Dual J-K Negative-Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Preset, Common Clock and Clear
* 74116: Dual 4-bit Latches with Clear
* 74118: Hex Set/Reset Latch
* 74119: Hex Set/Reset Latch
* 74120: Dual Pulse Synchronizer/Drivers
* 74121: Monostable Multivibrator
* 74122: Retriggerable Monostable Multivibrator with Clear
* 74123: Dual Retriggerable Monostable Multivibrator with Clear
* 74124: Dual Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
* 74125: Quad Bus Buffer with Three-State Outputs, Negative Enable
* 74126: Quad Bus Buffer with Three-state Outputs, Positive Enable
* 74128: Quad 2-input NOR Line Driver
* 74130: Quad 2-input AND gate Buffer with 30V open collector outputs
* 74131: Quad 2-input AND gate Buffer with 15V open collector outputs
* 74132: Quad 2-input NAND Schmitt trigger
* 74133: 13-Input NAND gate
* 74134: 12-Input NAND gate with Three-state Output
* 74135: Quad Exclusive-OR/NOR Gate
* 74136: Quad 2-Input XOR gate with open collector outputs
* 74137: 3 to 8-line Decoder/Demultiplexer with Address Latch
* 74138: 3 to 8-line Decoder/Demultiplexer
* 74139: Dual 2 to 4-line Decoder/Demultiplexer
* 74140: Dual 4-input NAND Line Driver
* 74141: BCD to Decimal Decoder/Driver for cold-cathode indicator/NIXIE Tube
* 74142: Decade Counter/Latch/Decoder/Driver for NIXIE Tube
* 74143: Decade Counter/Latch/Decoder/7-segment Driver, 15 mA Constant Current
* 74144: Decade Counter/Latch/Decoder/7-segment Driver, 15V open collector outputs
* 74145: BCD to Decimal Decoder/Driver
* 74147: 10-Line to 4-Line Priority Encoder
* 74148: 8-Line to 3-Line Priority Encoder
* 74150: 16-Line to 1-Line Data Selector/Multiplexer
* 74151: 8-Line to 1-Line Data Selector/Multiplexer
* 74152: 8-Line to 1-Line Data Selector/Multiplexer
* 74153: Dual 4-Line to 1-Line Data Selector/Multiplexer
* 74154: 4-Line to 16-Line Decoder/Demultiplexer
* 74155: Dual 2-Line to 4-Line Decoder/Demultiplexer
* 74156: Dual 2-Line to 4-Line Decoder/Demultiplexer with open collector outputs
* 74157: Quad 2-Line to 1-Line Data Selector/Multiplexer, Noninverting
* 74158: Quad 2-Line to 1-Line Data Selector/Multiplexer, Inverting
* 74159: 4-Line to 16-Line Decoder/Demultiplexer with open collector outputs
* 74160: Synchronous 4-bit Decade Counter with Asynchronous Clear
* 74161: Synchronous 4-bit Binary Counter with Asynchronous Clear
* 74162: Synchronous 4-bit Decade Counter with Synchronous Clear
* 74163: Synchronous 4-bit Binary Counter with Synchronous Clear
* 74164: 8-bit Parallel-Out Serial Shift Register with Asynchronous Clear
* 74165: 8-bit Serial Shift Register, Parallel Load, Complementary Outputs
* 74166: Parallel-Load 8-Bit Shift Register
* 74167: Synchronous Decade Rate Multiplier
* 74168: Synchronous 4-Bit Up/Down Decade Counter
* 74169: Synchronous 4-Bit Up/Down Binary Counter
* 74170: 4 by 4 Register File with open collector outputs
* 74172: 16-Bit Multiple Port Register File with Three-state Outputs
* 74173: Quad D Flip-Flop with Three-state Outputs
* 74174: Hex D Flip-Flop with Common Clear
* 74175: Quad D Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Complementary Outputs and Asynchronous Clear
* 74176: Presettable Decade (Bi-Quinary) Counter/Latch
* 74177: Presettable Binary Counter/Latch
* 74178: 4-bit Parallel-Access Shift Register
* 74179: 4-bit Parallel-Access Shift Register with Asynchronous Clear and Complementary QD Outputs
* 74180: 9-bit Odd/Even Parity Generator and Checker
* 74181: 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit and Function Generator
* 74182: Lookahead Carry Generator
* 74183: Dual Carry-Save Full Adder
* 74184: BCD to Binary Converter
* 74185: Binary to BCD Converter
* 74186: 512-bit (64×8) Read Only Memory with open collector outputs
* 74187: 1024-bit (256×4) Read Only Memory with open collector outputs
* 74188: 256-bit (32×8) Programmable read-only memory with open collector outputs
* 74189: 64-bit (16×4) RAM with Inverting three-state Outputs
* 74190: Synchronous Up/Down Decade Counter
* 74191: Synchronous Up/Down Binary Counter
* 74192: Synchronous Up/Down Decade Counter with Clear
* 74193: Synchronous Up/Down Binary Counter with Clear
* 74194: 4-bit Bidirectional Universal Shift Register
* 74195: 4-bit Parallel-Access Shift Register
* 74196: Presettable Decade Counter/Latch
* 74197: Presettable Binary Counter/Latch
* 74198: 8-bit Bidirectional Universal Shift Register
* 74199: 8-bit Bidirectional Universal Shift Register with J-Not-K Serial Inputs
* 74200: 256-bit RAM with Three-state Outputs
* 74201: 256-bit (256×1) RAM with three-state outputs
* 74206: 256-bit RAM with open collector outputs
* 74209: 1024-bit (1024×1) RAM with three-state output
* 74210: Octal Buffer
* 74219: 64-bit (16×4) RAM with Noninverting three-state outputs
* 74221: Dual Monostable Multivibrator with Schmitt trigger input
* 74222: 16 by 4 Synchronous FIFO Memory with three-state outputs
* 74224: 16 by 4 Synchronous FIFO Memory with three-state outputs
* 74225: Asynchronous 16×5 FIFO Memory
* 74226: 4-bit Parallel Latched Bus Transceiver with three-state outputs
* 74230: Octal Buffer/Driver with three-state outputs
* 74232: Quad NOR Schmitt trigger
* 74237: 1-of-8 Decoder/Demultiplexer with Address Latch, Active High Outputs
* 74238: 1-of-8 Decoder/Demultiplexer, Active High Outputs
* 74239: Dual 2-of-4 Decoder/Demultiplexer, Active High Outputs
* 74240: Octal Buffer with Inverted three-state outputs
* 74241: Octal Buffer with Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74242: Quad Bus Transceiver with Inverted three-state outputs
* 74243: Quad Bus Transceiver with Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74244: Octal Buffer with Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74245: Octal Bus Transceiver with Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74246: BCD to 7-segment Decoder/Driver with 30V open collector outputs
* 74247: BCD to 7-segment Decoder/Driver with 15V open collector outputs
* 74248: BCD to 7-segment Decoder/Driver with Internal Pull-up Outputs
* 74249: BCD to 7-segment Decoder/Driver with open collector outputs
* 74251: 8-line to 1-line Data Selector/Multiplexer with complementary three-state outputs
* 74253: Dual 4-line to 1-line Data Selector/Multiplexer with three-state outputs
* 74255: Dual 4-bit Addressable Latch
* 74256: Dual 4-bit Addressable Latch
* 74257: Quad 2-line to 1-line Data Selector/Multiplexer with Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74258: Quad 2-line to 1-line Data Selector/Multiplexer with Inverted three-state outputs
* 74259: 8-bit Addressable Latch
* 74260: Dual 5-Input NOR Gate
* 74261: 2-bit by 4-bit Parallel Binary Multiplier
* 74265: Quad Complementary Output Elements
* 74266: Quad 2-Input XNOR gate with open collector Outputs
* 74270: 2048-bit (512×4) Read Only Memory with open collector outputs
* 74271: 2048-bit (256×8) Read Only Memory with open collector outputs
* 74273: 8-bit Register with Reset
* 74274: 4-bit by 4-bit Binary Multiplier
* 74275: 7-bit Slice Wallace tree
* 74276: Quad J-Not-K Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops with Separate Clocks, Common Preset and Clear
* 74278: 4-bit Cascadeable Priority Registers with Latched Data Inputs
* 74279: Quad Set-Reset Latch
* 74280: 9-bit Odd/Even Parity Generator/Checker
* 74281: 4-bit Parallel Binary Accumulator
* 74283: 4-bit Binary Full adder
* 74284: 4-bit by 4-bit Parallel Binary Multiplier (low order 4 bits of product)
* 74285: 4-bit by 4-bit Parallel Binary Multiplier (high order 4 bits of product)
* 74287: 1024-bit (256×4) Programmable read-only memory with three-state outputs
* 74288: 256-bit (32×8) Programmable read-only memory with three-state outputs
* 74289: 64-bit (16×4) RAM with open collector outputs
* 74290: Decade Counter (separate divide-by-2 and divide-by-5 sections)
* 74291: 4-bit Universal Shift register, Binary Up/Down Counter, Synchronous
* 74292: Programmable Frequency Divider/Digital Timer
* 74293: 4-bit Binary Counter (separate divide-by-2 and divide-by-8 sections)
* 74294: Programmable Frequency Divider/Digital Timer
* 74295: 4-Bit Bidirectional Register with Three-state outputs
* 74297: Digital Phase-Locked-Loop Filter
* 74298: Quad 2-Input Multiplexer with Storage
* 74299: 8-Bit Bidirectional Universal Shift/Storage Register with three-state outputs
* 74301: 256-bit (256×1) RAM with open collector output
* 74309: 1024-bit (1024×1) RAM with open collector output
* 74310: Octal Buffer with Schmitt trigger inputs
* 74314: 1024-bit RAM
* 74320: Crystal controlled oscillator
* 74322: 8-bit Shift Register with Sign Extend, three-state outputs
* 74323: 8-bit Bidirectional Universal Shift/Storage Register with three-state outputs
* 74324: Voltage Controlled Oscillator (or Crystal Controlled)
* 74340: Octal Buffer with Schmitt trigger inputs and three-state inverted outputs
* 74341: Octal Buffer with Schmitt trigger inputs and three-state noninverted outputs
* 74344: Octal Buffer with Schmitt trigger inputs and three-state noninverted outputs
* 74348: 8 to 3-line Priority Encoder with three-state outputs
* 74350: 4-bit Shifter with three-state outputs
* 74351: Dual 8-line to 1-line Data Selectors/Multiplexers with three-state outputs and 4 Common Data Inputs
* 74352: Dual 4-line to 1-line Data Selectors/Multiplexers with Inverting Outputs
* 74353: Dual 4-line to 1-line Data Selectors/Multiplexers with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74354: 8 to 1-line Data Selector/Multiplexer with Transparent Latch, three-state outputs
* 74356: 8 to 1-line Data Selector/Multiplexer with Edge-Triggered Register, three-state outputs
* 74361: Bubble memory function timing generator
* 74362: Four-Phase Clock Generator/Driver (aka TIM9904)
* 74365: Hex Buffer with Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74366: Hex Buffer with Inverted three-state outputs
* 74367: Hex Buffer with Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74368: Hex Buffer with Inverted three-state outputs
* 74370: 2048-bit (512×4) Read-only memory with three-state outputs
* 74371: 2048-bit (256×8) Read-only memory with three-state outputs
* 74373: Octal Transparent Latch with three-state outputs
* 74374: Octal Register with three-state outputs
* 74375: Quad Bistable Latch
* 74376: Quad J-Not-K Flip-flop with Common Clock and Common Clear
* 74377: 8-bit Register with Clock Enable
* 74378: 6-bit Register with Clock Enable
* 74379: 4-bit Register with Clock Enable and Complementary Outputs
* 74380: 8-bit Multifunction Register
* 74381: 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit/Function Generator with Generate and Propagate Outputs
* 74382: 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit/Function Generator with Ripple Carry and Overflow Outputs
* 74385: Quad 4-bit Adder/Subtractor
* 74386: Quad 2-Input XOR gate
* 74387: 1024-bit (256×4) Programmable read-only memory with open collector outputs
* 74388: 4-bit Register with Standard and Three-state Outputs (74LS388 is equivalent to AMD Am25LS2518 , functional equivalent to Am2918 and Am25S18)
* 74390: Dual 4-bit Decade Counter
* 74393: Dual 4-bit Binary Counter
* 74395: 4-bit Universal Shift register with three-state outputs
* 74398: Quad 2-input Multiplexers with Storage and Complementary Outputs
* 74399: Quad 2-input Multiplexer with Storage
* 74408: 8-bit Parity Tree
* 74412: Multi-Mode Buffered 8-bit Latches with three-state outputs and Clear (74S412 is equivalent to Intel 8212, TI TIM8212)
* 74423: Dual Retriggerable Monostable Multivibrator
* 74424: Two-Phase Clock Generator/Driver (74LS424 is equivalent to Intel 8224, TI TIM8224)
* 74425: Quad Gates with three-state outputs and Active Low Enables
* 74426: Quad Gates with three-state outputs and Active High Enables
* 74428: System Controller for 8080A (74S428 is equivalent to Intel 8228, TI TIM8228)
* 74438: System Controller for 8080A (74S438 is equivalent to Intel 8238, TI TIM8238)
* 74440: Quad Tridirectional Bus Transceiver with Noninverted open collector outputs
* 74441: Quad Tridirectional Bus Transceiver with Inverted open collector outputs
* 74442: Quad Tridirectional Bus Transceiver with Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74443: Quad Tridirectional Bus Transceiver with Inverted three-state outputs
* 74444: Quad Tridirectional Bus Transceiver with Inverted and Noninverted three-state outputs
* 74448: Quad Tridirectional Bus Transceiver with Inverted and Noninverted open collector outputs
* 74450: 16-to-1 Multiplexer with Complementary Outputs
* 74451: Dual 8-to-1 Multiplexer
* 74452: Dual Decade Counter, Synchronous
* 74453: Dual Binary Counter, Synchronous (Motorola, “plain” TTL)
* 74453: Quad 4-to-1 Multiplexer
* 74454: Dual Decade Up/Down Counter, Synchronous, Preset Input
* 74455: Dual Binary Up/Down Counter, Synchronous, Preset Input
* 74456: NBCD (Natural Binary Coded Decimal) Adder
* 74460: Bus Transfer Switch
* 74461: 8-bit Presettable Binary Counter with three-state outputs
* 74462: Fiber-Optic Link Transmitter
* 74463: Fiber-Optic Link Receiver
* 74465: Octal Buffer with three-state outputs
* 74468: Dual MOS-to-TTL Level Converter
* 74470: 2048-bit (256×8) Programmable read-only memory with open collector outputs
* 74471: 2048-bit (256×8) Programmable read-only memory with three-state outputs
* 74472: Programmable read-only memory with open collector outputs
* 74473: Programmable read-only memory with three-state outputs
* 74474: Programmable read-only memory with open collector outputs
* 74475: Programmable read-only memory with three-state outputs
* 74481: 4-bit Slice Processor Elements
* 74482: 4-bit Slice Expandable Control Elements
* 74484: BCD-to-Binary Converter (mask programmed SN74S371 ROM)
* 74485: Binary-to-BCD Converter (mask programmed SN74S371 ROM)
* 74490: Dual Decade Counter
* 74491: 10-bit Binary Up/Down Counter with Limited Preset and three-state logic outputs
* 74498: 8-bit Bidirectional Shift Register with Parallel Inputs and three-state outputs
* 74508: 8-bit Multiplier/Divider
* 74520: 8-bit Comparator – as 74521 but with different input circuit
* 74521: 8-bit Comparator
* 74531: Octal Transparent Latch with 32 mA three-state outputs
* 74532: Octal Register with 32 mA three-state outputs
* 74533: Octal Transparent Latch with Inverting Three-state logic outputs
* 74534: Octal Register with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74535: Octal Transparent Latch with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74536: Octal Register with Inverting 32 mA three-state outputs
* 74537: BCD to Decimal Decoder with three-state outputs
* 74538: 1 of 8 Decoder with three-state outputs
* 74539: Dual 1 of 4 Decoder with three-state outputs
* 74540: Inverting Octal Buffer with three-state outputs
* 74541: Non-inverting Octal Buffer with three-state outputs
* 74558: 8-Bit by 8-Bit Multiplier with three-state outputs
* 74560: 4-bit Decade Counter with three-state outputs
* 74561: 4-bit Binary Counter with three-state outputs
* 74563: 8-bit D-Type Transparent Latch with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74564: 8-bit D-Type Edge-Triggered Register with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74568: Decade Up/Down Counter with three-state outputs
* 74569: Binary Up/Down Counter with three-state outputs
* 74573: Octal D-Type Transparent Latch with Three-State Outputs
* 74574: Octal D-Type Edge-Triggered Flip-flop with Three-state outputs
* 74575: Octal D-Type Flip-Flop with Synchronous Clear, Three-state outputs
* 74576: Octal D-Type Flip-Flop with Inverting Three-state outputs
* 74577: Octal D-Type Flip-Flop with Synchronous Clear, Inverting three-state outputs
* 74580: Octal Transceiver/Latch with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74589: 8-bit Shift Register with Input Latch, three-state outputs
* 74590: 8-Bit Binary Counter with Output Registers and three-state outputs
* 74592: 8-Bit Binary Counter with Input Registers
* 74593: 8-Bit Binary Counter with Input Registers and three-state outputs
* 74594: Serial-in Shift register with Output Latches
* 74595: Serial-in Shift register with Output Registers
* 74596: Serial-in Shift register with Output Registers and open collector outputs
* 74597: Serial-out Shift register with Input Latches
* 74598: Shift register with Input latches
* 74600: Dynamic Memory Refresh Controller, Transparent and Burst Modes, for 4K or 16K DRAMs (74LS600 is equivalent to TI TIM99600)
* 74601: Dynamic Memory Refresh Controller, Transparent and Burst Modes, for 64K DRAMs (74LS601 is equivalent to TI TIM99601)
* 74602: Dynamic Memory Refresh Controller, Cycle Steal and Burst Modes, for 4K or 16K DRAMs (74LS602 is equivalent to TI TIM99602)
* 74603: Dynamic Memory Refresh Controller, Cycle Steal and Burst Modes, for 64K DRAMs (74LS603 is equivalent to TI TIM99603)
* 74604: Octal 2-input Multiplexer with Latch, High-Speed, with Three-state outputs (74LS604 is equivalent to TI TIM99604)
* 74605: Octal 2-input Multiplexer with Latch, High-Speed, with open collector outputs (74LS605 is equivalent to TI TIM99605)
* 74606: Octal 2-input Multiplexer with Latch, Glitch-Free, with Three-state outputs (74LS606 is equivalent to TI TIM99606)
* 74607: Octal 2-input Multiplexer with Latch, Glitch-Free, with open collector outputs (74LS607 is equivalent to TI TIM99607)
* 74608: Memory Cycle Controller (74LS608 is equivalent to TI TIM99608)
* 74610: Memory Mapper, Latched, Three-state Outputs (74LS610 is equivalent to TI TIM99610)
* 74611: Memory Mapper, Latched, open collector outputs (74LS611 is equivalent to TI TIM99611)
* 74612: Memory Mapper, Three-state logic Outputs (74LS612 is equivalent to TI TIM99612)
* 74613: Memory Mapper, open collector outputs (74LS613 is equivalent to TI TIM99613)
* 74620: Octal Bus Transceiver, Inverting, Three-state Outputs
* 74621: Octal Bus Transceiver, Noninverting, open collector outputs
* 74622: Octal Bus Transceiver, Inverting, open collector outputs
* 74623: Octal Bus Transceiver, Noninverting, Three-state outputs
* 74624: Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Enable Control, Range Control, Two-Phase Outputs
* 74625: Dual Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Two-Phase Outputs
* 74626: Dual Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Enable Control, Two-Phase Outputs
* 74627: Dual Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
* 74628: Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Enable Control, Range Control, External Temperature Compensation, and Two-Phase Outputs
* 74629: Dual Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Enable Control, Range Control
* 74630: 16-bit Error Detection and Correction (EDAC) with three-state outputs
* 74631: 16-bit Error Detection and Correction (EDAC) with open collector outputs
* 74632: 32-bit Error Detection and Correction (EDAC)
* 74638: Octal Bus Transceiver with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74639: Octal Bus Transceiver with Noninverting three-state outputs
* 74640: Octal Bus Transceiver with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74641: Octal Bus Transceiver with Noninverting open collector outputs
* 74642: Octal Bus Transceiver with Inverting open collector outputs
* 74643: Octal Bus Transceiver with Mix of Inverting and Noninverting three-state outputs
* 74644: Octal Bus Transceiver with Mix of Inverting and Noninverting open collector outputs
* 74645: Octal Bus Transceiver
* 74646: Octal Bus Transceiver/Latch/Multiplexer with Noninverting three-state outputs
* 74647: Octal Bus Transceiver/Latch/Multiplexer with Noninverting open collector outputs
* 74648: Octal Bus Transceiver/Latch/Multiplexer with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74649: Octal Bus Transceiver/Latch]]/Multiplexer with Inverting open collector outputs
* 74651: Octal Bus Transcevier/Register with Inverting three-state outputs
* 74652: Octal Bus Transcevier/Register with Noninverting three-state outputs
* 74653: Octal Bus Transcevier/Register with Inverting three-state and open collector outputs
* 74654: Octal Bus Transcevier/Register with Noninverting three-state and open collector outputs
* 74658: Octal Bus Transceiver with Parity, Inverting
* 74659: Octal Bus Transceiver with Parity, Noninverting
* 74664: Octal Bus Transcevier with Parity, Inverting
* 74665: Octal Bus Transcevier with Parity, Noninverting
* 74668: Synchronous 4-bit Decade Up/Down Counter
* 74669: Synchronous 4-bit Binary Up/Down Counter
* 74670: 4 by 4 Register File with three-state outputs
* 74671: 4-bit Bidirectional Shift register/Latch /Multiplexer with three-state outputs
* 74672: 4-bit Bidirectional Shift register/Latch/Multiplexer with three-state outputs
* 74673: 16-bit Serial-in Serial-Out Shift register with Output Storage Registers, three-state outputs
* 74674: 16-bit Parallel-in Serial-out Shift register with three-state outputs
* 74677: 16-bit Address Comparator with Enable
* 74678: 16-bit Address Comparator with Latch
* 74679: 12-bit Address Comparator with Latch
* 74680: 12-bit Address Comparator with Enable
* 74681: 4-bit Parallel Binary Accumulator
* 74682: 8-bit Magnitude Comparator
* 74683: 8-bit Magnitude Comparator with open collector outputs
* 74684: 8-bit Magnitude Comparator
* 74685: 8-bit Magnitude Comparator with open collector outputs
* 74686: 8-bit Magnitude Comparator with Enable
* 74687: 8-bit Magnitude Comparator with Enable
* 74688: 8-bit Magnitude Comparator
* 74689: 8-bit Magnitude Comparator with open collector outputs
* 74690: 4-bit Decimal Counter/Latch/Multiplexer with Asynchronous Reset, Three-State Outputs
* 74691: 4-bit Binary Counter/Latch/Multiplexer with Asynchronous Reset, Three-State Outputs
* 74692: 4-bit Decimal Counter/Latch/Multiplexer with Synchronous Reset, Three-state Outputs
* 74693: 4-bit Binary Counter/Latch/Multiplexer with Synchronous Reset, Three-state Outputs
* 74694: 4-bit Decimal Counter/Latch/Multiplexer with Synchronous and Asynchronous Resets, three-state outputs
* 74695: 4-bit Binary Counter/Latch/Multiplexer with Synchronous and Asynchronous Resets, three-state outputs
* 74696: 4-bit Decimal Counter/Register/Multiplexer with Asynchronous Reset, three-state outputs
* 74697: 4-bit Binary Counter/Register/Multiplexer with Asynchronous Reset, three-state outputs
* 74698: 4-bit Decimal Counter/Register/Multiplexer with Synchronous Reset, three-state outputs
* 74699: 4-bit Binary Counter/Register/Multiplexer with Synchronous Reset, three-state outputs
* 74716: Programmable Decade Counter (74LS716 is equivalent to Motorola MC4016)
* 74718: Programmable Binary Counter (74LS718 is equivalent to Motorola MC4018)
* 74724: Voltage Controlled Multivibrator
* 74740: Octal Buffer/Line Driver, Inverting, three-state outputs
* 74741: Octal Buffer/Line Driver, Noninverting, three-state outputs, Mixed enable polarity
* 74744: Octal Buffer/Line Driver, Noninverting, three-state logic outputs
* 74748: 8 to 3-line priority encoder
* 74779: 8-bit bidirectional binary counter (3-State)
* 74783: Synchronous Address Multiplexer (74LS783 is equivalent to Motorola MC6883)
* 74790: Error Detection and Correction (EDAC)
* 74794: 8-Bit Register with Readback
* 74795: Octal Buffer with Three-state logic outputs (74LS795 is equivalent to 81LS95)
* 74796: Octal Buffer with Three-state logic outputs (74LS796 is equivalent to 81LS96)
* 74797: Octal Buffer with Three-state logic outputs (74LS797 is equivalent to 81LS97)
* 74798: Octal Buffer with Three-state logic outputs (74LS798 is equivalent to 81LS98)
* 74804: Hex 2-input NAND Drivers
* 74805: Hex 2-input NOR Drivers
* 74808: Hex 2-input AND Drivers
* 74832: Hex 2-input OR Drivers
* 74848: 8 to 3-line Priority Encoder with three-state outputs
* 74873: Octal Transparent Latch
* 74874: Octal D-Type Flip-flop
* 74876: Octal D-Type Flip-flop with Inverting Outputs
* 74878: Dual 4-bit D-Type Flip-flop with Synchronous Clear, Noninverting three-state outputs
* 74879: Dual 4-bit D-Type Flip-flop with Synchronous Clear, Inverting three-state outputs
* 74880: Octal Transparent Latch with Inverting Outputs
* 74882: 32-bit Lookahead Carry Generator
* 74888: 8-bit Slice Processor
* 74926: 4-digit counter/display driver
* 74935: 3.5-digit Digital Voltmeter (DVM) support chip for Multiplexed 7-segment displays (MM74C935 = ADD3501CCN)
* 74936: 3.75-digit Digital Voltmeter (DVM) support chip for Multiplexed 7-segment displays (MM74C936 = ADD3701CCN)
* 741005: hex inverting buffer with open-collector output
* 741035: hex noninverting buffers with open-collector outputs
* 742960: Error Detection and Correction (EDAC) (74F2960 is equivalent to AMD Am2960)
* 742961: EDAC Bus Buffer, Inverting
* 742962: EDAC Bus Buffer, Noninverting
* 742968: Dynamic Memory Controller
* 742969: Memory Timing Controller for use with EDAC
* 742970: Memory Timing Controller for use without EDAC
* 744002: Dual 4-Input NOR gate
* 744015: Dual 4-bit shift registers
* 744017: 5-Stage �10 Johnson Counter
* 744020: 14-stage binary counter
* 744024: 7 Stage Ripple Carry Binary Counter
* 744028: BCD to Decimal Decoder
* 744040 12-stage binary ripple counter
* 744046: PLL and VCO
* 744049: Hex Inverting Buffer
* 744050: Hex buffer/converter (non-inverting)
* 744051: High-Speed CMOS Logic 8-Channel Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
* 744052: Dual 4-Channel Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexers
* 744053: Triple 2-Channel Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexers
* 744059: Programmable Divide-by-N Counter
* 744060: 14-stage binary ripple counter with oscillator
* 744066: Quad bilateral switches
* 744067: 16-Channel Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
* 744075: Triple 3-input OR Gate
* 744078: 8-Input OR/NOR gate
* 744094: 8-bit Three-state Shift Register/Latch
* 744316: Quad analog switch
* 744511: BCD to 7-Segment Decoder
* 744520: Dual 4-bit Synchronous Binary Counter
* 744538: Dual Retriggerable Precision Monostable Multivibrator
* 747007: hex buffer (like 7407, however push-pull outputs)
* 747266: Quad 2-input XNOR gate (Exclusive NOR, Equivalence test)
* 7429841: 10-bit bus-interface D-type latch with 3-state outputs
* 7440103: Presettable 8-bit Synchronous Down Counter
* 7440105: 4-bit by 16-word FIFO register
* -EOF-

[Home]

Share